Observation, Measurement, Facts, Deduction, 1896 Style: Review of the Alienist by Caleb Carr

The Alienist by Caleb Carr, with updated cover art featuring actors from the upcoming TNT drama series

The Alienist by Caleb Carr, with updated cover art featuring actors from the upcoming TNT drama series

     The Alienist, the 1994 detective novel by Caleb Carr, was a bestseller in its day.  Now book sales may go through the roof again due to the TNT network’s new television series of the same name.  You have probably seen it in stores with the stars of the TV series gazing from the shiny new covers displayed on the shelves.  

     The Alienist introduced an unforgettable cast of characters including the alienist himself, Dr. Laszlo Kreizler; his friend newspaper reporter John Schuyler Moore (he whose Dutch name evokes New York history); their friend, Sara Howard, who broke the glass ceiling of the secretarial profession (a previously male domain) at the NYPD; and Cyrus Montrose and Stevie Taggert, who have worked for Kreizler ever since he saved them from life crises in the period before the novel begins.  Cyrus and Stevie have real jobs working for Kreizler, but in addition, Cyrus provides the team’s muscle while Stevie has the necessary stealth and street connections that come with the territory this book covers. 

     The story is set in 1896 Manhattan.  The atmosphere ranges from tense demonstrations of power in the halls of money, church, and government to the seamy surroundings of new immigrants and seasoned New Yorkers occupying the city’s teeming tenements, navigating its grimy streets, and nightly filling its notorious brothels.  Fortunately, dinners at Delmonico’s provide the alienist, his collaborators, and the reader with periodic respites from the ghastly crime scenes, political maneuvering, and surly thugs who try to control Kreizler’s investigation in order to preserve various dimensions of the criminal status quo. 

     In this work of fiction, it was New York City Police Superintendent Theodore Roosevelt who brought Kreizler and his team in to investigate a series of murders involving the killing and mutilation of cross-dressing boy prostitutes.  Roosevelt knew Kreizler and Moore from college at Harvard; they are now old friends working together with affection and trust.  During the time of the story, Roosevelt was the new superintendent trying to improve the police department with his eye on cleaning up corruption, misbehavior, and poor performance.  Another historical character, the pioneering American psychologist William James (who they knew as a Harvard professor) does not actually appear as a live character, but is cast as a memory whose role is a shaper of thought and character.  The term alienist in this period of time meant a psychologist:  Kreizler himself was an alienist becoming what is now called a criminal profiler.  His research and applications were controversial to powerful people, which meant that Roosevelt’s initiative in starting this investigation could bring his own political downfall unless he conducts it as a shadowy parallel of the official (and ineffective) police investigation.  Sara’s job as a police secretary assisted with this, since she had an unquestioned reason to be in the police department.  In addition, Roosevelt quietly assigned two young police detectives, the brothers Lucius and Marcus Isaacson to help Kreizler.  The brothers proved eager to assist, especially because their innovative forensic techniques were actively resisted by the old guard in the police department, at least some of whom also didn’t like that they were Jewish.

     This is a book you can sink your teeth into.  It is 484 pages long and unfolds as the investigators learn that they are tracking someone who, like Jack the Ripper and W.W. Holmes hunted and killed human victims in London and Chicago ca 1888-1893.  The Ripper and Holmes are quite credibly on people’s minds in this story (newspaper reports concerning Holmes are periodically mentioned due to the killer’s execution in May 1896, several months into the story).  Kreizler’s team also deduces that the killings are predictable in a way connected to religion, which I will not discuss further as I try to avoid spoilers, and even tidbits of specific information concerning clues the reader will ponder while turning the pages.  Nonetheless, deducing who the killer is and where he will strike are, to say the least, eventful.  And so the story works through the months of murder and mutilation, the side trips, the interviews, the discoveries, the attacks, the confrontations, the near-confrontations, death and near-death, the grim encounters with evil. 

     It is fair to ask why The Alienist is reviewed in an archaeology blog.  I suppose that part of the answer is that The Alienist is the kind of book an archaeologist reads in his or her spare time, when he/she is off-duty, between archaeological surveys, chili on the stove, reading while the cocoa is warm in the mug and it’s snowing outside the window.  A broader answer may be an analogy that at least one archaeology professor has made (but that I suspect numerous archaeology professors have made):  “Archaeology is like detective work.”  I, a reader of Kay Scarpetta novels and The Hound of the Baskervilles, have never been prepared to argue against this view.  But I would make 3 further points. 

     First, because of its nature, forensic science appeals to archaeologists, and archaeology increasingly has a lab-science forensic aspect.  Meanwhile, crime scene field investigations have converged toward archaeological techniques, as we can learn quickly from a chapter or two of Marilyn Johnson’s Lives in Ruins (or more casually by watching CSI reruns). 

     Second, while Patricia Cornwell’s Scarpetta series pioneered forensic investigation as a significant dimension of detective stories, The Alienist (written roughly contemporary with the early Scarpetta novels) has imagined forensic science as applied to criminal investigation in its infancy, set 90 years before the first Scarpetta story.  Of interest to anthropologists and archaeologists in particular, Alienist author Caleb Carr uses his characters Marcus and Lucius Isaacson to bring to this narrative the late 19th century anthropometric method of the French researcher Alphonse Bertillon.  The Issacsons also employ fingerprinting, a method then regarded as too controversial and unproven to introduce as actual evidence, but something the Isaacsons consider could unofficially guide an investigation.  The general context of this is fascinating: in the era when the book is set, anthropometry trumped finger-printing as a method to provide evidence in criminal investigation and prosecution.  In the specific context of The Alienist, anthropometry had become widely accepted in Europe, but was actively resisted by the NYPD due to entrenched interests in less rigorous methods that did not require detectives to measure things.

     Third, famous anthropologists show up in the novel. Teddy Roosevelt is not the only historical figure to become a walking, talking character here.  Franz Boas and Clark Wissler are two of the others.  As part of the investigation, Kreizler and Moore stop by the American Museum of Natural History to interview Boas and Wissler about the possibility that the killer is Native American, or whether the mutilation of the victims could have been inspired by American Indian practices.  As I said, no spoilers here, so that is all for now on the anthropologists…All except to say that the anthropologists’ response sent the investigation in an important direction, while their ethical position on the Indian questions will resonate across time for archaeologist/anthropologist readers.

     In 1994 The Alienist was a best seller, which is no small achievement.  Now it is poised to become a bigger thing, in different measures because of television and the discovery of this book by a new generation of readers.  For the new generation of readers, or those who have not followed Kreizler’s adventures beyond The Alienist, there is really good news:  Carr wrote a sequel called The Angel of Darkness (1997), introducing a new killer and transporting Kreizler’s team to the Village of Ballston Spa, seat of Saratoga County, New York. 

The Alienist by Caleb Carr, original cover

The Alienist by Caleb Carr, original cover

     Also, after a long hiatus in the Kreizler saga, Carr published Surrender, New York in 2016.  Surrender, New York tells the story of present-day detectives taking a Kreizler approach to their work.  Surrender, New York is the fictional name of their little village.  I wonder where on earth (between Saratoga Springs and the Town of Easton, in the greater Schuylerville-Victory, New York vicinity) that is? 

     Finally, internet searches will show you that there may be one or two more Kreizler novels in the works.  Carr told the story of The Alienist with John Moore as the narrator, and The Angel of Darkness from Stevie Taggert’s perspective. Who will narrate the next story?  I’m putting my money on Sara Howard.  It won’t likely be Laszlo Kreizler.  Wouldn’t it be totally un-Sherlockian for Kreizler to tell the story?

Winter Archaeology (For Hearty Souls)

     Archaeology conjures various pictures in the public imagination.  Hot, thirsty, desert archaeologists using small hand brooms to brush the crumbled dust of the ages from ancient stone foundations...

     Indiana Jones- and Joans-types in khaki shirts and wide-brimmed hats pushing through steaming, verdant undergrowth, nearly stumbling over long-lost jungle ruins...

     Hard-core students of history descending ever deeper into square excavations along a slow, muddy river, the summer sun beating down on the canopies that provide much-needed shade...

     Frigid wind blowing snow into the faces of bundled-up seekers of the past as they trudge knee-deep through the icy crests of shifting drifts toward their client's Area of Potential Effect (APE), located just beyond the distant hedgerow...

Digging to recover artifacts before construction.  Archaeological data recovery a few years back  in the Town of Coxsackie, New York.

Digging to recover artifacts before construction.  Archaeological data recovery a few years back  in the Town of Coxsackie, New York.

     Frigid wind blowing snow in the faces of bundled-up seekers of the past as they trudge knee-deep through the icy crests of shifting drifts... What?

The field crew keeps warm by working hard on the survey of a Phase 1 project in Stillwater, NY.

The field crew keeps warm by working hard on the survey of a Phase 1 project in Stillwater, NY.

     Let me introduce you to winter-time archaeology in the State of New York.  I don't want to make it sound too bad.  There are those memorable days when it's very cold and getting the job done takes extra dedication.  But some days are better than others.  Just last week we were out in mostly sunny weather with temperatures reaching the 30s by early afternoon.  And some winter fieldwork days are even better than that:  Sunny days when you might actually take off your coat and roll up your sleeves.  That being said, however, on the cold days, dressing in layers and using hand and foot warmers helps a lot.  Many of you know this, and certainly, archaeologists are not the only ones who work outdoors in the winter.  People do winter fieldwork in a variety of professions for the same reason:  we have clients who are getting ready for construction.

Screen and shovel, awaiting the gloved hands of an archaeologist to continue work in a field near Saratoga Springs, NY. A good example of the snow cover acting as an insulator for the ground beneath.

Screen and shovel, awaiting the gloved hands of an archaeologist to continue work in a field near Saratoga Springs, NY. A good example of the snow cover acting as an insulator for the ground beneath.

     There is a good reason New York State archaeology is conducted in the winter:  Archaeological data are needed to satisfy environmental review and historic preservation requirements so that construction projects can proceed.  Often, these projects need to avoid disturbing archaeological sites, or at least adequately take into account how they might affect archaeological sites.  People who want to build in the spring or summer sometimes need archaeology done in the winter.

     This process starts with a Phase 1 archaeological survey, an investigation of whether archaeological sites occur within a proposed construction area.  The Phase 1 survey includes background research:  checking files of archaeological site records, researching old maps, visiting the project site to evaluate its setting and condition.  This work is sometimes called a Phase 1A archaeological or cultural resource survey, and this part can be done any time of year.

     But the full Phase 1 survey has a Phase 1B part involving fieldwork such as test pitting.  Most 1A surveys find that the Phase 1B is warranted, and indeed necessary to meet State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) requirements.  The Phase 1B fieldwork can be performed in the winter if the ground is not frozen.

     You probably have realized by now we won't shy away just because it's cold:  the big limitation is frozen ground.  I find that in most years in the Hudson Valley region the ground freezes sometime in January, if it freezes at all.  Wooded areas with thick leaf litter and areas covered with snow stay unfrozen the longest.  There have been some years recently when the ground in the woods either did not freeze, or froze late and thawed early (staying frozen for maybe 3-4 weeks).  Last winter we shovel-tested a wooded area in Ballston, New York during February, and at the end of February we shovel-tested a project site in Warrensburg.  In winters when the ground freezes, it routinely thaws upward toward the last crust at the surface.  During February and March, a thick, insulating cover of snow may enable the ground to thaw before winter is over, sometimes weeks before it's over, as we found in Cobleskill one winter.

     So, often when someone needs to hire an archaeologist in the winter, despair about schedules may be premature.  First of all, the background research can be performed.  In addition, it may be possible to complete the field archaeology if the project area is wooded, if it has been snow-covered much of the winter, or if it is in a location such as an urban parking lot where a backhoe is needed anyway to test below paved surfaces and fill.

     We do fieldwork every winter.  The photos shown here represent winter fieldwork performed over the years (with cold hands and warm smiles) by some of the most skilled and dedicated field archaeologists.  The captions give a little context on the work and results.

Vampires, Consumption and Wasting Away in the 19th Century: Review of Food for the Dead by Michael C. Bell (Hardcover: Carroll and Graf, 2001; Paperback: Wesleyan, 2015)

Oh, hello, come on in.  I’m just finishing my book review.  What?  How’s work?  It’s going pretty well.  We’ve been doing Phase 1 and 2 archaeological surveys up and down the Hudson Valley.  Catskill, Saratoga, Bethlehem, Colonie, Moreau, Stillwater, Queensbury...we’ve been here and we’ve been there, that’s for sure.

Walking in October Light: A Memory of Learning about the Archaic Period

Walking in October Light:  A Memory of Learning about the Archaic Period

This month as I drive down narrow country roads on my way to work, the sunlight shines at low angles through the tree canopies ahead, reminding me of an earlier time when I walked through October light in Albany, New York’s Washington Park on my way to the State Museum.  It was the late 1970s, and I had come to Albany from Binghamton to study with State Archaeologist Bob Funk, supported by a SUNY pre-doctoral research fellowship.

Looking for Leif Erikson: A Busman’s Holiday along the Bass River, Cape Cod

Looking for Leif Erikson: A Busman’s Holiday along the Bass River, Cape Cod

Cape Cod reaches out from New England like a great strong arm, elbow bent, hand curving inward as if to clench a fist.  Cape Cod fights against the crashing Atlantic as its land is carved away and slowly sinks below the rising sea.  Behind the crumbling bluffs backing Nausett and the other Atlantic beaches lays an historic land where Pilgrims landed in 1620, Puritan settlers built houses and mills, and Wampanoag Indians mustered the resilience to match the colonial enterprise back then and for the next 400 years.

From the Archives: Review of the Lost City of Z by David Grann

From the Archives:  Review of the Lost City of Z by David Grann

The Lost City of Z by David Grann (Vintage Departures/Vintage Books, 2009) is the story of the British explorer Percy Fawcett, who spent much of the early 20th century exploring and mapping the Amazon Basin.  The City of Z is the name Fawcett used to refer to a mysterious, undiscovered ancient city he believed to exist in the Amazon basin.